(Islamic Republic of Iran)
Islamic Revolution of Iran (1979)
The Islamic Revolution of Iran in 1979 transformed Iran from a constitutional monarchy, under Shah (King) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to a religious ruling system called "Islamic Republic" under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (or, as he is referred to in Iran, Imam Khomeini).
The revolution created a surprise in the world stage from various perspectives: This profound change took place very rapidly. A religion, Islam, took the leading role. Shah's regime was seemingly a militarily protected one from overthrow. Security services were very much well-trained and equipped.
Provisional Government (1979–1980)
Ayatollah Khomeini forced the prime minister of Shah’s regime out of office and appointed a new prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan. In late March of 1979, through a referendum, Iranians voted on a new form of government, and in April, with overwhelming public approval, Ayatollah Khomeini declared the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
In November 1979, hundreds of Iranian students called "pro-Imam path students" broke into the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took the staff hostage. This took 444 days before they were released. The students discovered an enormous number of pages of documents proving the US government's espionage missions in Iran. Therefore, they called the embassy "den of espionage".
Islamic Republic of Iran (1980–Present)
In September 1980, the Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein, invaded Iran to take advantage of seemingly non-established new political system and exclude the oil-rich province of Khuzestan off the Iranian map. This war continued for 8 years and left lots of devastations, but Iranians' resistance finally kept the hands of the invaders off the Iranian soil.
In 1988, Iran agreed to the cease fire proposed by the UN Security Council Resolution 598.
In 1981, a bomb was detonated at the head office of the Islamic Republic Party and the Premier's office. It killed 70 high-ranking Iranian officials, including Iranian President Mohammad Ali Rajai, Prime Minister Mohammad Javad Bahonar, and Chief Justice Ayatollah Mohammad Beheshti.
In 1988, the USS Vincennes shot down Iran Air Flight 655 en route to UAE and killed all 290 people on board. Later US government called it a mistake.
In 1989, Ayatollah Khomeini passed away. Following the demise of the Islamic Revolution leader, the Assembly of Experts chose the outgoing president of the republic, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, to succeed him as supreme leader.
President Rafsanjani was re-elected in 1993 for a second term of office. Rafsanjani was succeeded in 1997 by the moderate Mohammad Khatami. His presidency was soon marked by two fractions within the Iranian government, conservative and reformist groups.
Khatami was re-elected in June of 2001, but the challenge was still there. Mahmood Ahmadinejad became the mayor of Tehran. He was later elected president in 2005 and is currently in office in Iran.
As a result of the twin towers' explosion in September 11 of 2001, the US government announced a "war on terror" policy to combat terrorism. Therefore, an attack was launched against Afghanistan, the eastern neighbor of Iran with the aim of eliminating Al-Qaeda strongholds there.
Iran stayed neutral during the war in Afghanistan. US army and his allies could not arrest the head of Al-Qaeda despite lots of advanced and sophisticated technologies in their access. So, the US government continued the so-called "war on terror" to Iraq.
The coalition forces, who launched this military expedition on Iraq, managed to arrest Saddam Hussein. He is still being tried in a court inside Iraq. The tribunal process has not reached any point to release a verdict against him yet.
There are still lots of dispute in the world and surprisingly inside the US communities as to whether it has been a right decision to go to Iraq. American troops are still in the Iraqi soil without having accomplished the goals initially set for their military mission, the elimination of Al-Qaeda.
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