The Right of
National Sovereignty and the Powers Deriving There from
Absolute sovereignty over the world and man belongs to God, and it
is He Who has made man master of his own social destiny. No one can
deprive man of this divine right, nor subordinate it to the vested
interests of a particular individual or group. The people are to
exercise this divine right in the manner specified in the following
The powers of government in the Islamic Republic are vested in the
legislature, the judiciary, and the executive powers, functioning
under the supervision of the absolute wilayat al-'amr and the
leadership of the Ummah, in accordance with the forthcoming articles
of this Constitution. These powers are independent of each other.
The function of the legislature are to be exercised through the
Islamic Consultative Assembly, consisting of the elected
representatives of the people. Legislation approved by this body,
after going through the stages specified in the articles below, is
communicated to the executive and the judiciary for implementation.
In extremely important economic, political, social, and cultural
matters, the function of the legislature may be exercised through
direct recourse to popular vote through a referendum. Any request
for such direct recourse to public opinion must be approved by
two-thirds of the members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly.
The functions of the executive, except in the matters that are
directly placed under the jurisdiction of the Leadership by the
Constitution, are to be exercised by the president and the
The function of the judiciary are to be performed by courts of
justice, which are to be formed in accordance with the criteria of
Islam, and are vested with the authority to examine and settle
lawsuits, protect the rights of the public, dispense and enact
justice, and implement the Divine limits [al-hudud al-Ilahiyyah].